TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol, which is a communication protocol that operates on the transport layer of the Internet Protocol (IP) suite. TCP provides reliable, ordered, and error-checked delivery of data between applications running on different hosts.
TCP breaks data into packets, which are sent over the network and then reassembled at the destination. It provides a mechanism for establishing and terminating connections between applications, as well as flow control and congestion control to ensure that data is transmitted efficiently and without loss.
TCP operates by establishing a connection between two endpoints, typically a client and a server. The connection is established through a three-way handshake process, where the client and server exchange SYN and ACK messages to agree on the initial sequence numbers for data transmission.
Once the connection is established, data can be transmitted between the two endpoints using a sliding window mechanism. The sender can transmit a certain number of packets at a time, and the receiver acknowledges each packet as it arrives. If a packet is lost or damaged in transit, TCP will retransmit the packet until it is received correctly.
TCP also provides mechanisms for flow control and congestion control to prevent network congestion and ensure that data is transmitted efficiently. Flow control allows the receiver to signal the sender to slow down if it is receiving data too quickly, while congestion control monitors network congestion and adjusts the transmission rate accordingly.
TCP is widely used in applications that require reliable and ordered delivery of data, such as web browsing, email, file transfer, and other client-server applications.
Last modified 9mo ago