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Manage Data Disks

On the left menu bar, go to Compute > Virtual Machine > Data Disk to view basic information about the system disk and data disk.

Prerequisites

After you attach a data disk to a virtual machine instance, you must create and mount one or more file systems on the disk before using it.
You have different ways to partition and format a new data disk on a Linux instance and a Windows instance.

Background Information

Data disks support the GUID Partition Table (GPT) and Master Boot Record (MBR) partition formats.
  • GPT: recognize partitions larger than 2 TiB in size and allows an unlimited number of partitions (for Linux)/up to 128 partitions (for Windows) to be created on each disk.
  • MBR: recognize partitions up to 2 TiB in size and allows up to four partitions to be created on each disk.

Precautions

  • Disk partitioning and formatting are high-risk operations. Proceed with caution when you partition and format disks. This topic applies only to new data disks.
  • Only data disks can be partitioned. Please do not partition a system disk, otherwise risks such as system failures and data loss may occur.

Procedures

Linux

Step 1 - Use your password to connect to the instance.

Run the following command to view the information of the data disk attached.
fdisk -l

Step 2 - Create a partition for the data disk

Create a GPT partition
1. Run the following command to install Parted and e2fsprogs.
  • Install Parted
yum install -y parted
  • Install e2fsprogs
yum install -y e2fsprogs
2. Use Parted to partition the data disk. /dev/vdb is the disk name for illustration.
1) Run the following command to start partitioning the data disk.
parted /dev/vdb
2) Run the following command to set the partition format to GPT.
mklabel gpt
3) Run the following command to create a primary partition and specify the start and end sectors for the partition.
mkpart primary 1 100%
4) Run the following command to check whether the partition is aligned.
align-check optimal 1
5) Run the following command to view the partition table.
print
6) Run the following command to exit Parted.
quit
3. Run the following command to re-read the partition table.
partprobe
4. Run the following command to view the new partition.
fdisk -lu /dev/vdb
Create an MBR partition
MBR partition does not support data disks larger than 2 TiB. If your data disk is larger than 2 TiB in size or may need to be extended to larger than 2 TiB, we recommend that you use the GPT partition format. See Create a GPT Partition for more details.
1. Partition the data disk. /dev/vdb is the disk name for illustration.
1) Run the following command to partition the data disk.
fdisk -u /dev/vdb
2) Enter P to view the partition information of the data disk.
3) Enter N to create a partition.
4) Enter P to set the partition as a primary partition.
5) Enter the partition number and press the Enter key.
6) Enter the number of the first available sector and press the Enter key.
7) Enter the number of the last sector and press the Enter key.
8) Enter P to view the partition information of the data disk.
9) Enter W to start partitioning. Then, exit after the disk is partitioned.
2. Run the following command to view the new partition.
fdisk -lu /dev/vdb
3. Create a file system for the partition
  • Run the following command to create an ext4 file system.
mkfs -t ext4 /dev/vdb1
  • ​​​​​​Run the following command to create an xfs file system.
mkfs -t xfs /dev/vdb1
4. Configure the /etc/fstab file and mount the partition
Write the information of the new partition to /etc/fstab to enable this partition to be automatically mounted on instance startup.
1) Run the following command to back up etc/fstab.
cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab.bak
2) Write the information of the new partition to /etc/fstab.
echo `blkid /dev/vdb1 | awk '{print $2}' | sed 's/\"//g'` /mnt ext4 defaults 0 0 >> /etc/fstab
Description of the parameters in this command:
  • /dev/vdb1: the data disk partition that has a file system created. Replace it with your actual partition name.
  • /mnt: the directory to which the partition is mounted. Replace it with the actual directory of your partition.
  • ext4: the file system type of the partition. Replace it with the type of the created file system.
3) Run the following command to check the information of the new partition in /etc/fstab.
cat /etc/fstab
4) Run the following command to mount the file system configured in the /etc/fstab file.
mount -a
5) Run the following command to check the mount result.
df -h

Windows

Step 1 - Open the Disk Management window and find a data disk that is not partitioned or formatted

  1. 1.
    Use your password to connect to the instance.
  2. 2.
    On the Windows Server desktop, click the Server Manager icon in the lower-left corner.
  3. 3.
    In the Server Manager window, choose Tools > Computer Management in the upper-right corner.
  4. 4.
    In the left-side navigation pane, choose Computer Management (Local) > Storage > Disk Management.
  5. 5.
    Find a data disk that is not partitioned or formatted, which is in the Offline state.

Step 2 - Right-click the blank area around the disk and select Online

When the disk goes online, it enters the Not Initialized state.

Step 3 - Right-click the blank area around the disk and select Initialize Disk

Step 4 - In the Initialize Disk dialog box, select the disk, select a partition format, and then click OK

Step 5 - Right-click the Unallocated section and select New Simple Volume

Step 6 - In the New Simple Volume Wizard dialog box, perform the following operations

  1. 1.
    Click Next.
  2. 2.
    In the Specify Volume Size step, set Simple volume size in MB and click Next.
  3. 3.
    In the Assign Drive Letter or Path step, select Assign the following drive letter, select a drive letter, and then click Next.
  4. 4.
    In the Format Partition step, select Format this volume with the following settings, configure formatting settings, and then click Next.
  5. 5.
    Check the settings and click Finish.